All Articles of the Indian Constitution in English [PDF]

You can read All articles of the Indian constitution

History of Indian constitution:

The Indian Constitution is the supreme law of India that governs the country’s political, social, and economic systems. It was adopted on 26th November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India and came into effect on 26th January 1950. The drafting of the Indian Constitution was a monumental task, and it took almost three years to complete.The history of the Indian Constitution is rooted in India’s freedom struggle against British colonial rule. The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, became the driving force behind India’s independence movement. After decades of protests and civil disobedience, India finally gained independence from the British in 1947.The process of drafting the Indian Constitution began soon after India’s independence. The Constituent Assembly was formed in 1946, and it comprised 389 members, including political leaders, lawyers, and experts from various fields. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, a renowned jurist, was appointed as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.The Constituent Assembly held several sessions between 1946 and 1949 to debate and discuss the various provisions of the Constitution. The Assembly members were divided into several committees, including the Drafting Committee, which was responsible for preparing the final draft of the Constitution.The drafting of the Constitution was a complex task, and the Committee faced several challenges. They had to strike a balance between different ideologies, religions, and castes, and ensure that the Constitution reflected India’s diverse and pluralistic society. The Committee also drew inspiration from various sources, including the Constitutions of other countries, the Government of India Act of 1935, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.The Indian Constitution is a lengthy document, comprising 448 articles and 12 schedules, and it covers a wide range of topics, including fundamental rights, directive principles of state policy, and the powers and functions of the different branches of government.The Constitution was finally adopted on 26th November 1949, and it came into effect on 26th January 1950, which is celebrated as Republic Day in India. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as India’s first President, and Jawaharlal Nehru became the country’s first Prime Minister.The Indian Constitution has undergone several amendments over the years to keep pace with the changing times and address new challenges. As of 2021, it has been amended 104 times.In conclusion, the Indian Constitution is the cornerstone of India’s democracy and the foundation of the country’s political, social, and economic systems. Its drafting was a monumental task that reflected India’s rich diversity and pluralism. The Constitution continues to evolve to meet the needs of India’s rapidly changing society, and it remains a source of inspiration for people around the world.

The preamble of India:

WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure all its citizens;

JUSTICE, social, economic, and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation :



1 . Name and territory of the union.

2. Admission or establishment of new state

2A. [Delete]

3. Formation of new States and alternation of areas, boundaries or names of existing states.

4. Laws were made under articles 2 and 3 to amend the first and the fourth schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.


5. Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.

6. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.

7. Rights off citizenship certain migrants to Pakistan.

8. Rights of citizenship of certain person of Indian origin residing outside from Pakistan.

9. Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign state not to be citizens.

10. Continuances of the rights of citizenship.

11. Parliament to regulated the right of citizenship by law.


12. Definition of state.

13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

Right to Equality; 

14. Equality before law.

15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.

16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.

17. Abolition of untouchability.

18. Abolition Of title.

Right to freedom :

19. Protection certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc

20. Protection of respect of convention for offence.

21. Protection of life and personal liberty.

21. Protection of life and personal liberty.

22. Protection agnessed arrest and detention in certain cases.

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